Multiple gestation is evaluated by the number of placentae and amniotic sacs present. There is a second blood screen at 15 to 20 weeks which refines the risk more accurately. The newer integrated screen formerly called F. If severe, it progresses to eclampsia, where seizuresoccur, which can be fatal. This trans-abdominal ultrasound scan checks on the anatomical development of the fetus. It is a detailed scan and checks all the major organs.
The woman's blood pressure will be measured and a urinalysis carried out. The gestational age can be assessed by evaluating the mean gestational sac diameter MGD before week 6, and the crown-rump length after week 6. These may include swelling edema , headaches, visual disturbances, epigastric pain and proteinurea. Obstetric ultrasonography Obstetric ultrasonography is the application of medical ultrasonography to obstetrics, in which sonography is used to visualize the embryo or fetus in its mother's uterus womb. Intercurrent diseases In addition to complications of pregnancy that can arise, a pregnant woman may have intercurrent diseases, that is, other diseases or conditions not directly caused by the pregnancy that may become worse or be a potential risk to the pregnancy. Second trimester The second trimester is when women start to see their midwife. From twenty eight weeks, the midwife will measure the symphysis fundal height or SFH to measure the growth of the abdomen. No effects of magnetic resonance imaging MRI on the fetus have been demonstrated, but this technique is too expensive for routine observation. Some unknown factors cause vascular damage in the endothelium, causing hypertension. It may happen during or after labour. Demand for thyroid hormones is increased during pregnancy which may cause a previously unnoticed thyroid disorder to worsen. Antenatal record On the first visit to her obstetrician or midwife, the pregnant woman is asked to carry out the antenatal record, which constitutes a medical history and physical examination. Doppler sonography can be used to evaluate the pulsations in the fetal heart and bloods vessels for signs of abnormalities. This may routinely be done twice in the third trimester. If severe, it progresses to eclampsia, where seizuresoccur, which can be fatal. This takes in to account the woman's size and the size of any previous babies when decided what her 'normal range' is for SFH growth. High risk women who have a risk of greater than about 1: As a consequence, if the fetus is not in a good position for the scan to be preformed, the woman may be sent off for a walk and then asked to return. A short cervix preterm is undesirable: Additionally, women under 25 years of age will be offered chlamydia testing via a urine sample, and women considered high risk will be screened for Sickle Cell disease and Thalassemia. Prolapsed cord can only happen after the membranes have ruptured. First time mums, or mums on the high risk care pathway, may see the midwife at around twenty four weeks, when the midwife will offer to listen to the fetal heart. Signs to look out for include signs of infection pyrexia or hypothermia, raised heart rate and respiratory rate, reduced blood pressure , and abdominal pain, offensive lochia blood loss increased lochia, clots, diarrhea and vomiting. Some resources indicate that there are clear reasons for this and that such scans are also clearly beneficial because ultrasound enables clear clinical advantages for assessing the developing fetus in terms of morphology, bone shape, skeletal features, fetal heart function, volume evaluation, and general fetus well being. Fetal distress where the fetus is getting compromised in the uterine environment. Thyroid disease in pregnancy can, if uncorrected, cause adverse effects on fetal and maternal well-being.
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